eVehicle Technology


What is a battery?

Batteries are a source of electrical power or a collection of one or more cells whose chemical reactions create a flow of electrons in a circuit. Today, most of the all-electric vehicles and PHEVs use lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion batteries are a type of rechargeable battery that uses lithium ions.

How does a Lithium-ion battery work?

The purpose of a lithium-ion battery is to circulate electrons by creating a potential difference between one negative and one positive electrode. The electrodes are then submerged in a ionic liquid called the electrolyte. When the Lithium-ion battery is powering an electric vehicle, the electrons accumulated in the negative electrode are released via an external circuit to travel to the positive electrode.
The materials used to manufacture Li-ion batteries include:

  • Lithium – Soft, silvery-white alkali metal.
  • Graphite – Crystalline form of the element carbon.
  • Cobalt – Hard silvery-white magnetic metal
  • Manganese – Hard grey metal, it is an important component of special steels and magnetic alloys.

What are the different types of batteries?

Aside from Lithium-ion batteries, Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries and Lead-Acid Batteries are also used in electric vehicles.

Why does an electric car need a battery?

Rather than gasoline, an electric car uses a battery to power the electric motor. The battery can be recharged primarily by an external electricity source. Lithium-ion batteries have a higher energy density than typical lead-acid or nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries. This means that battery manufacturers can save space, reducing the overall size of the battery pack.

EDF Energy

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